VAL_SparqlACLs SPARQL ACLs in Virtuoso SPARQL ACLs in Virtuoso Introduction Virtuoso uses the VAL ACL system to control access to named graphs, and to SPARQL in general. When enabled, these rules are automatically enforced in various Virtuoso interaction including the /sparql endpoints, and can also be used manually in any other application as described below. SPARQL access is controlled in two ways: General access ACLs grant a person the basic right to perform SPARQL SELECT, UPDATE, or SPONGE queries. These ACL rules always apply to the same specific resource URI, urn:virtuoso:access:sparql, has a scope of oplacl:Query. For historical reasons, this ACL is disabled by default, which grants everyone the right to SELECT, UPDATE, and SPONGE. See below on how to enable the ACL scope, and thus, the evaluation of the rules. Named graph ACLs grant access to specific private graphs. (Public graphs are always fully accessible, or they are not really public. See below for details.) These ACL rules grant access to one private graph at a time, and have a scope of oplacl:PrivateGraphs. Private Graphs used for ACL storage The Rules can be controlled via two APIs -- RESTful VAL ACL API Internal VAL API Alternatively, one can manually add rules to the private graph matching the realm in which the rules should apply. Such manual addition means that two properties of each rule, oplacl:hasRealm and foaf:maker, which are invisibly and automatically managed by the APIs, must also be manually managed. Given the default realm -- http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#DefaultRealm -- and the default hostname -- {HOST-CNAME} -- the graph IRI would be -- http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/rules/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm -- and the groups would be stored in named graph -- http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/groups/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm Note: these defaults can be customized for better readability. Enabling or Disabling ACL Rule Evalution Each set of ACL rules is defined as one ACL scope. As implied above, there are two ACL scopes in VAL, each with a set of default access modes which are used if ACL rule evaluation has been disabled. The purpose and default configurations of these two scopes are -- oplacl:Query for general SPARQL access PREFIX acl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/auth/acl#> PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> INSERT INTO <urn:virtuoso:val:acl:schema> { oplacl:PrivateGraphs a oplacl:Scope ; rdfs:label "Sparql" ; rdfs:comment """Sparql ACL scopes which contains all ACL rules granting access to specific named graphs. By default ACLs are disabled. System admins can enabled ACLs. There are no default access modes since Virtuoso only applies ACLs to private graphs which should remain private.""" ; oplacl:hasApplicableAccess oplacl:Read , oplacl:Write , oplacl:Sponge . }; oplacl:PrivateGraphs for access to specific private graphs PREFIX acl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/auth/acl#> PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> INSERT INTO <urn:virtuoso:val:acl:schema> { oplacl:Query a oplacl:Scope ; rdfs:label "SQL" ; rdfs:comment """SQL ACL scopes which contains all ACL rules granting permission to perform SQL operations or SPARQL operations in general. The latter is complemented by the sparql scope which contains rules for named graph access.""" ; oplacl:hasApplicableAccess oplacl:Read , oplacl:Write , oplacl:Sponge ; oplacl:hasDefaultAccess oplacl:Read , oplacl:Write , oplacl:Sponge . }; A scope can be explicitly enabled or disabled in any given realm. By default, they are neither, which means that it is up to the application to decide. Given the default realm oplacl:DefaultRealm, the evaluation of ACLs for private graphs could be disabled as follows: SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> WITH <urn:virtuoso:val:config> DELETE { oplacl:DefaultRealm oplacl:hasEnabledAclScope oplacl:PrivateGraphs . } INSERT { oplacl:DefaultRealm oplacl:hasDisabledAclScope oplacl:PrivateGraphs . }; To enable the evalution of general SPARQL access rules in the default realm one would use: SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> WITH <urn:virtuoso:val:config> DELETE { oplacl:DefaultRealm oplacl:hasDisabledAclScope oplacl:Query . } INSERT { oplacl:DefaultRealm oplacl:hasEnabledAclScope oplacl:Query . }; Examples In the following examples -- the default realm oplacl:DefaultRealm is used for creating the ACL resources. {HOST-CNAME} is used as a placeholder for the default hostname of the system on which the ACL resource are created. Note: these defaults can be customized for better readability. Example ACL Rules for General SPARQL Access Grant Everyone the Right To SPARQL Select SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX acl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/auth/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/rules/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{RULE-IRI}> a acl:Authorization ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasAccessMode oplacl:Read ; acl:accessTo <urn:virtuoso:access:sparql> ; acl:agentClass foaf:Agent ; oplacl:hasScope oplacl:Query ; oplacl:hasRealm oplacl:DefaultRealm . }; Grant an Individual the Right to Grant Sponge Permissions SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX acl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/auth/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/rules/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{RULE-IRI}> a acl:Authorization ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasAccessMode oplacl:GrantSponge ; acl:accessTo <urn:virtuoso:access:sparql> ; acl:agent <{AGENT-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasScope oplacl:Query ; oplacl:hasRealm oplacl:DefaultRealm . }; Granting Permissions to a Group Of People First, Create a Group There are two types of groups: static defined by a simple list of individuals, as seen below conditional defined by a set of conditions which describe a dynamic group of individuals UNKNOWN tag: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml:h6 A Static Group SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/groups/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{GROUP-IRI}> a foaf:Group, oplacl:StaticGroup ; foaf:name "Some people" ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; foaf:member <{AGENT-IRI-1}> , [...] <{AGENT-IRI-N}> . }; UNKNOWN tag: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml:h6 A Conditional Group of Anyone who has Authenticated The Required Group in a conditional group which includes every authenticated NetID: SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/groups/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{GROUP-IRI}> a oplacl:ConditionalGroup ; foaf:name "Valid Identifiers" ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasCondition [ a oplacl:GroupCondition, oplacl:GenericCondition ; oplacl:hasCriteria oplacl:NetID ; oplacl:hasComparator oplacl:IsNotNull ; oplacl:hasValue 1 ] . }; UNKNOWN tag: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml:h6 A Conditional Group of Anyone who has a Verified WebID The Required Group in a conditional group which includes every authenticated NetID: SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/groups/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{GROUP-IRI}> a oplacl:ConditionalGroup ; foaf:name "Valid WebIDs" ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasCondition [ a oplacl:GroupCondition, oplacl:GenericCondition ; oplacl:hasCriteria oplacl:WebIDVerified ; oplacl:hasComparator oplacl:EqualTo ; oplacl:hasValue 1 ] . }; UNKNOWN tag: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml:h6 A Conditional Group of Anyone who has presented a Valid X.509 Client Certificate The Required Group in a conditional group which includes every valid X.509 certificate: SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/groups/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{GROUP-IRI}> a oplacl:ConditionalGroup ; foaf:name "Valid X.509 Certificates" ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasCondition [ a oplacl:GroupCondition, oplacl:GenericCondition ; oplacl:hasCriteria oplacl:CertVerified ; oplacl:hasComparator oplacl:EqualTo ; oplacl:hasValue 1 ] . }; UNKNOWN tag: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml:h6 A Conditional Group of Any Verified WebID Which Claims to be a Person Query conditions consist of a query which supports two variables which are replaced with the profile graph and the personal URI respectively. SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/groups/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{GROUP-IRI}> a oplacl:ConditionalGroup ; foaf:name "Valid WebIDs" ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasCondition [ a oplacl:GroupCondition, oplacl:GenericCondition ; oplacl:hasCriteria oplacl:WebIDVerified ; oplacl:hasComparator oplacl:EqualTo ; oplacl:hasValue 1 ] , [ a oplacl:GroupCondition, oplacl:QueryCondition ; oplacl:hasQuery """ASK WHERE { GRAPH ^{graph}^ { ^{uri}^ a foaf:Person } }""" ] }; Second, Create a Rule to Grant Privileges to the Group Members UNKNOWN tag: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml:h6 An ACL Rule to grant Sponge Privileges to the Group Members Once the group has been created it can be referenced in a new Authorization that provides members with the ability to grant Sponge privileges to others so that they too can use the Sponger functionality via SPARQL based data access: SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX acl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/auth/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/rules/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{RULE-IRI}> a acl:Authorization ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasAccessMode oplacl:Sponge ; acl:accessTo <urn:virtuoso:access:sparql> ; acl:agent <{GROUP-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasScope oplacl:Query ; oplacl:hasRealm oplacl:DefaultRealm . }; UNKNOWN tag: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml:h6 An ACL Rule to grant Write Privileges to the Group Members Once the group has been created it can be referenced in a new Authorization that provides members with Write (Insert, Update, and Delete) privileges via SPARQL data access: SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX acl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/auth/acl#> PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> WITH <http://{HOST-CNAME}/acl/graph/rules/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{RULE-IRI}> a acl:Authorization ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasAccessMode oplacl:Write ; acl:accessTo <urn:virtuoso:access:sparql> ; acl:agent <{GROUP-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasScope oplacl:Query ; oplacl:hasRealm oplacl:DefaultRealm . }; Example ACL Rules for Access To Private Graphs Grant Read Access on a Private Graph to an Individual SPARQL PREFIX oplacl: <http://www.openlinksw.com/ontology/acl#> PREFIX acl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/auth/acl#> WITH <http://HOST/acl/graph/rules/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.openlinksw.com%2Fontology%2Facl%23DefaultRealm> INSERT { <{RULE-IRI}> a acl:Authorization ; foaf:maker <{ADMIN-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasAccessMode oplacl:Read ; acl:accessTo <{NAMED-GRAPH-IRI}> ; acl:agent <{AGENT-IRI}> ; oplacl:hasScope oplacl:PrivateGraphs ; oplacl:hasRealm oplacl:DefaultRealm . }; See Also Sponger ACLs VAL ACL System SQL ACLs - Control SPARQL Access in SQL Connections (ODBC)