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%META:TOPICPARENT{name="VOSSPARQL"}% ---+ Virtuoso SPARQL Query Service %TOC% ---++ Introduction to SPARQL in Virtuoso The Virtuoso SPARQL query service originally implemented the [[http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-protocol/][SPARQL Protocol for RDF]] (W3C Recommendation, 15 January 2008), and has been updated to support [[http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-overview/][SPARQL 1.1]], providing SPARQL query-processing for RDF data available on the open Internet. The query service implementation extends the standard protocol by providing multiple output-formats alongside the standard XML results serialization. At present this uses additional query parameters, although content-negotiation will be supported soon. ---++ SPARQL Service Endpoint Virtuoso reserves the path <code>'/sparql/'</code> and a synonym path <code>'/SPARQL/'</code> for SPARQL service. In the current implementation, Virtuoso defines virtual directories for HTTP requests received on the port specified as <code><nowiki>'ServerPort'</nowiki></code> in the <code>'[HTTPServer]'</code> section of the Virtuoso configuration file which refer to one of these two path strings. If the Virtuoso installation on host example.com listens for HTTP requests on port 8080 then client applications should use the 'service endpoint' string equal to <code><nowiki>http://example.com:8080/sparql/</nowiki></code>. For example, the [[http://demo.openlinksw.com/][Live Virtuoso Demo instance]] publishes a service at the following endpoint: <code><nowiki>http://demo.openlinksw.com/sparql/</nowiki></code>. Both <code>GET</code> and <code>POST</code> requests are supported by both server and client. The server recognizes the 'Accept: ...' line of the request header to find MIME types preferred by the connected client and adjust the output mode of the response. The client chooses between <code>GET</code> and <code>POST</code> automatically, based on the length of the query text. ---++ HTTP Request Methods | *Method* | *Supported* | *Notes* | | <code>GET</code> | Yes | Short queries are sent in <code>GET</code> mode | | <code>POST</code> | Yes | Queries longer than 1900 bytes are <code>POST</code>-ed | | <code>DELETE</code> | No | | | <code>PUT</code> | No | | ---++ HTTP Request Parameters | *Parameter* | *Notes* | *Required* | *Occurrence* | | <code>query</code> | SPARQL Query text | Yes | | | <code>query-uri</code> | Absolute URL for Query Template file that returns SPARQL Query Text | No | | | <code>default-graph-uri</code> | Absolute URL of default graph (string or NULL) | Yes | | | <code>named-graph-uri</code> | Vector of named graphs (or NULL to not override what's specified in the query | Yes | | | <code>req_hdr</code> | Additional HTTP header lines that should be passed to the service; 'Host: ...' is most popular | No | | | <code>maxrows</code> | Maximum numbers of rows that should be returned (actual size of result set may differ) | No | | | <code>bnode_dict</code> | Dictionary of known blank node names, or NULL for usual loading | No | | | <code>xslt-uri</code> | Absolute URL of XSLT file to be applied to SPARQL Query results | No | | ---++ HTTP Response Codes As specified in the [[http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-protocol/#query-bindings-http][SPARQL protocol]], Virtuoso returns the following HTTP response codes: | *Code* | *Meaning* | | <code>200</code> | successful query | | <code>400</code> | malformed query | | <code>500</code> | error processing query or fetching data | ---++ HTTP Response Formats All standard MIME types of SPARQL Protocol are supported. ---+++ SPARQL Protocol Client Response Formats | *Content-Type* | *SPARQL query type* | *Description* | | <code>'application/sparql-results+xml'</code> | SELECT, ASK | Canonical XML presentation of SPARQL result set | | <code>'text/rdf+n3'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/rdf+ttl'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/rdf+turtle'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/turtle'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/n3'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'application/turtle'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'application/x-turtle'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'application/rdf+xml'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Canonical RDF/XML presentation | ---+++ SPARQL Protocol Server Response Formats | *Content-Type* | *SPARQL query type* | *Description* | | <code>'application/sparql-results+xml'</code> | SELECT, ASK | Canonical XML presentation of SPARQL result set | | <code>'text/rdf+n3'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/rdf+ttl'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/rdf+turtle'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/turtle'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'text/n3'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'application/turtle'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'application/x-turtle'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle | | <code>'application/x-nice-turtle'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Turtle, like above, but the server will try to use "list" and "[...]" notations to make the document easier to read. This formatting is a slow procedure so long results will be formatted as plain Turtle. | | <code>'text/rdf+nt'</code> | SELECT | Format for NT (each triple is printed separately without abbreviations) | | <code>'text/plain'</code> | SELECT | Format for NT (each triple is printed separately without abbreviations) | | <code>'text/ntriples'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Format for NT (each triple is printed separately without abbreviations) | | <code>'application/x-trig'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | TriG syntax for result sets, triples and quads (or sets of graphs with triples). While it is not used for quads, the output is same as for Turtle. | | <code>'application/rdf+xml'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Canonical RDF/XML presentation | | <code>'application/soap+xml'</code> | SELECT | SOAP XML | | <code>'application/soap+xml;11'</code> | SELECT | SOAP XML | | <code>'text/html'</code> | SELECT | HTML document for plain browsing; it's a TABLE for result set and HTML with micro-data for triples | | <code>'text/md+html'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | HTML with microdata; for triples only | | <code>'text/microdata+html'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | HTML with microdata; for triples only | | <code>'text/x-html+ul'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | HTML with triples grouped into hierarchical list | | <code>'text/x-html+tr'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | HTML with triples in form of a table | | <code>'application/vnd.ms-excel'</code> | SELECT | HTML table for loading data into stylesheets | | <code>'text/csv'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Comma-separated values | | <code>'text/tab-separated-values'</code> | SELECT | Tab-separated values | | <code>'application/javascript'</code> | SELECT | JavaScript data fragment | | <code>'application/json'</code> | SELECT | JSON | | <code>'application/sparql-results+json'</code> | SELECT, ASK | JSON result set | | <code>'application/odata+json'</code> | SELECT, ASK, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | JSON in ODATA style | | <code>'application/microdata+json'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Microdata as JSON; for triples only | | <code>'application/rdf+json'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | JSON in TALIS style; for triples only | | <code>'application/x-rdf+json'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | JSON in TALIS style; for triples only | | <code>'application/x-json+ld'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | JSON in Linked Data style; for triples only | | <code>'application/ld+json'</code> | CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | JSON in Linked Data style; for triples only | | <code>'text/cxml'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | CXML output for rendering in Pivot Viewer of MS SilverLight. Result sets and triples are handled in different ways. | | <code>'text/cxml+qrcode'</code> | SELECT,CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | CXML output with QRcode imprinted into each picture; for result sets and triples | | <code>'application/atom+xml'</code> | SELECT, CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE | Atom-style XML | | <code>'application/xhtml+xml'</code> | SELECT | RDFa placed into XHTML; for triples only | If the HTTP header returned by the remote server does not contain a <code>'Content-Type'</code> line, the MIME-type may be deduced from the text of the returned body. Error messages returned from the service are returned as XML documents, using the mime-type <code><nowiki>application/xml</nowiki></code>. The documents consist of a single element containing an error message. ---+++ Additional HTTP Response Formats -- SELECT Use the format parameter to select one of the following alternate output formats: | *Format Value* | *Description* | *Content-Type* | | HTML | HTML document containing query summary and tabular results | <code>text/html</code> | | JSON | JSON serialization of results. Conforms to the draft specification [[http://www.mindswap.org/~kendall/sparql-results-json/][Serializing SPARQL Query Results in JSON]] | <code>application/sparql-results+json</code> | | Javascript | Javascript serialization of results. Generates an HTML table with the CSS class <code>sparql</code>. The table contains a column indicating row number and additional columns for each query variable. Each query solution contributes one row of the table. Unbound variables are indicated with a non-breaking space in the appropriate table cells. | <code>application/javascript</code> | | XML | | <code>application/sparql-results+xml</code> | | TURTLE | | <code>text/rdf+n3</code> | ---+++ Additional HTTP Response Formats -- DESCRIBE & CONSTRUCT | *Format Value* | *Description* | *Content-Type* | | JSON | | <code>application/rdf+json</code> | ---++ Virtuoso/PL APIs Virtuoso also provides SPARQL Protocol client APIs in PL, so you can communicate with SPARQL Query Services from within SQL stored-procedures. The APIs are as follows: | *API* | *Notes* | | <code><nowiki>DB.DBA.SPARQL_REXEC</nowiki></code> | behaves like <code><nowiki>DBA.SPARQL_EVAL</nowiki></code>, but executes the query on the specified server. The procedure does not return anything. Instead, it creates a result set. | | <code><nowiki>DB.DBA.SPARQL_REXEC_TO_ARRAY</nowiki></code> | behaves like <code><nowiki>DBA.SPARQL_EXEC_TO_ARRAY()</nowiki></code>, but executes the query on the specified server. The function return a vector of rows, where every row is represented by a vector of values of fields. | | <code><nowiki>DB.DBA.SPARQL_REXEC_WITH_META</nowiki></code> | has no local <code><nowiki>SPARQL_EVAL</nowiki></code> analog. It produces not only an array of result rows but also array of metadata about result set in a format used by the <code>exec()</code> function. | ---++ Examples There is a live [[http://demo.openlinksw.com/sparql_demo][Virtuoso Demo Server]] instance available at all times for experimentation and demonstrations. It includes a collection of saved queries demonstrating Virtuoso's implementation of the [[http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-dawg-uc/][DAWG's SPARQL test-suite]] -- a collection of SPARQL query language use-cases that enables interactive and simplified testing of a RDF triple-store's SPARQL implementation. Virtuoso also powers the publicly accessible endpoints housing datasets for [[http://dbpedia.org/sparql][DBpedia]], the [[http://lod.openlinksw.com/sparql][LOD Cloud Cache]], and [[http://linkeddata.uriburner.com/sparql/][URIBurner]]. ---++ Implementation Notes This service has been implemented using [[http://docs.openlinksw.com/virtuoso][OpenLink Virtuoso]]. ---++ Related * [[VirtSPARQLEndpointProtection][Safeguarding your Virtuoso-hosted SPARQL Endpoint]] * [[VirtTipsAndTricksGuideSPARQLEndpointProtection][SPARQL Endpoint Protection Methods Collection]] * [[http://docs.openlinksw.com/virtuoso/][Virtuoso documentation]] * [[http://docs.openlinksw.com/virtuoso/rdfsparql.html#rdfsupportedprotocolendpoint][SPARQL Service Endpoint]] * [[http://docs.openlinksw.com/virtuoso/rdfsparql.html#rdfsupportedprotocolendpointuri][Service Endpoint Security]] * [[http://docs.openlinksw.com/virtuoso/rdfsparql.html#sparqwebservicetbl][Managing a SPARQL Web Service Endpoint]] * [[http://docs.openlinksw.com/virtuoso/rdfsparql.html][SPARQL]] * [[VirtTipsAndTricksGuide][Virtuoso Tips and Tricks Collection]] * [[VirtSPARQLDET][SPARQL Endpoint DET Configuration Guide]] * [[VirtSPARQLSecurityWebID][WebID Protocol & SPARQL Endpoint ACLs Tutorial]] * [[VirtOAuthSPARQL][SPARQL OAuth Tutorial]] * [[VirtTipsAndTricksGuideSPARQLEndpoints][Securing SPARQL endpoints]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/OdsSPARQLAuth][SPARUL over SPARQL using the http://cname:port/sparql-auth endpoint]] * [[VirtAuthServerUI][Virtuoso Authentication Server UI]] * [[VirtSPARQLSSL][Manage a SPARQL-WebID based Endpoint]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/VirtODSSecurityWebID][WebID Protocol Support in OpenLink Data Spaces]]. * Manage ODS Datadspaces Objects WebID Access Control Lists (ACLs): * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBriefcaseWebID][ODS Briefcase WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBriefcaseWebIDPerson][Person Entity WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBriefcaseWebIDGroup][Group Entity WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBriefcaseWebIDPublic][Public WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSFeedManagerWebIDACL][ODS Feed Manager WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSFeedManagerWebIDACLPerson][Person Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSFeedManagerWebIDACLGroup][Group Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSFeedManagerWebIDACLPublic][Public Specific ACL for anyone with a WebID]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSCalendarWebIDACL][ODS Calendar WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSCalendarWebIDACLPerson][Person Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSCalendarWebIDACLGroup][Group Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSCalendarWebIDACLPublic][Public Specific ACL for anyone with a WebID]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBookmarksWebIDACL][ODS Bookmark Manager WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBookmarksWebIDACLPerson][Person Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBookmarksWebIDACLGroup][Group Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBookmarksWebIDACLPublic][Public Specific ACL for anyone with a WebID]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSAddressBookWebIDACL][ODS Addressbook WebID based ACL Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSAddressBookWebIDACLPerson][Person Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSAddressBookWebIDACLGroup][Group Entity Specific ACL]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSAddressBookWebIDACLPublic][Public Specific ACL for anyone with a WebID]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSPkiSetup][Guide for Set up a X.509 certificate issuer and HTTPS listener and generate ODS user certificates.]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/VirtODSPubSubHub][Setting up PubSubHub in ODS]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/VirtPubSubHub][PubSubHubBub Demo Client Example]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/VirtFeedPubSubHub][Feed subscription via PubSubHub protocol Example ]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/VirtPubSubHubACL][Setting Up PubSubHub to use WebID Protocol or IP based control lists]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/OdsKeyImport][CA Keys Import using Conductor]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSGenerateX509Certificate][Generate an X.509 Certificate hosted WebID Guide]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSGenerateWebIDX509CertOSKeystore][Generate an X.509 Certificate (with a WebID watermark) to be managed by host operating system keystore]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSGenerateWebIDX509CertBrsKeystore][Generate an X.509 Certificate (with a WebID watermark) to be managed by a browser-based keystore]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSWebIDIdP][Using Virtuoso's WebID Verification Proxy Service with a WebID-bearing X.509 certificate]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSWebIDIdpProxy][Using Virtuoso's WebID Identity Provider (IdP) Proxy Service with an X.509 certificate]] * [[http://ods.openlinksw.com/wiki/ODS/ODSBriefcaseWebIDShareFile][ODS Briefcase WebID Protocol Share File Guide]] * [[http://esw.w3.org/topic/foaf+ssl][WebID Protocol Specification]] * [[https://foaf.me/simpleLogin.php][Test WebID Protocol Certificate page]] * [[http://test.foafssl.org/cert/][WebID Protocol Certificate Generation page]]
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